A panoramic radiograph is a panoramic scanning dental X-ray of the upper and lower jaw. Dental X-Ray – OPG (Orthopantomogram) It shows a two-dimensional view of a half-circle from ear to ear. Panoramic radiography is a form of focal plane tomography; thus, images of multiple planes are taken to make up the composite panoramic image, where the maxilla and mandible are in the focal trough and the structures that are superficial and deep to the trough are blurred.
Cone beam computed tomography (or CBCT, also referred to as C-arm CT, cone beam volume CT or flat panel CT) is a medical imaging technique consisting of X-ray computed tomography where the X-rays are divergent, forming a cone.
CBCT has become increasingly important in treatment planning and diagnosis in implant dentistry, ENT, orthopaedics, and interventional radiology (IR), among other things. Perhaps because of the increased access to such technology, CBCT scanners are now finding many uses in dentistry, such as in the fields of oral surgery, endodontics and orthodontics. Integrated CBCT is also an important tool for patient positioning and verification in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT).
During dental/orthodontic imaging, the CBCT scanner rotates around the patient’s head, obtaining up to nearly 600 distinct images. For interventional radiology, the patient is positioned offset to the table so that the region of interest is centred in the field of view for the cone beam. A single 200-degree rotation over the region of interest acquires a volumetric data set. The scanning software collects the data and reconstructs it, producing what is termed a digital volume composed of three-dimensional voxels of anatomical data that can then be manipulated and visualized with specialized software. CBCT shares many similarities with traditional (fan beam) CT, however there are important differences, particularly for reconstruction.CBCT has often been described as the gold standard for the imagining oral and maxillofacial area and will now become part of daily life in coming decades