Improving these linkages is a strong government priority. To accomplish this, the government increased the education budget increased fivefold in the 11th Five year Plan for 2007 to 2012 over the previous five-year plan. Carney and Zheng also cite a business mind-set that is risk-averse and that focuses on “incremental innovation” rather than “radical innovation.”290 A sharp drop in private research spending that was blamed on global economic. Investments targeted “enabling” technologies such as biotech, materials, and information and communications technology. Openness and an emphasis on public-private partnership pervade the innovation system of Flanders, the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium. These innovations should also have “frugal’ impact on the environment to be sustainable in the long term.193. 449 For a good analysis of the evolution of Canadian innovation policy, see Thomas Liljemark, “Innovation Policy in Canada: Strategies and Realities,” Swedish Institute for Growth Policy Studies, A2004:24 (http://www.vinnova.se/upload/EPiStorePDF/InnovationPolicyInCanada.pdf). The Five-Year plan calls for a number of new universities and greater collaboration between academia, research institutes, and industry. Reinvent your business. Once primarily providers of low-cost outsourced software and callcenter services, Indian corporations such as Tata Consulting Services, Infosys, Wipro, and Genpact now help clients ranging from the world’s biggest insurance companies and banks to airlines and legal firm develop innovative business processes that boost efficiency, cut cost, and improve customer service.216 India’s biggest IT services companies directly compete with giants such as IBM, Accenture, and Hewlett Packard, who also have major operations in India. The NRF will match capital raised by venture capitalists in these funds, which will be managed by professional investors and must invest only in Singaporebased high-tech startups. Launched in 1994, TusPark has a 20-building campus in Beijing with 400 companies and 30,000 employees. Never miss an insight. Coordination among German’s big research institutions also has traditionally been spotty. The most recent innovation push began in 2003 under President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao, who elevated innovation to the top of the nation’s economic agenda. Companies were to repay the funds when they became profitable. declined in inflation-adjusted terms since 2001.436 Canada’s BERD intensity is among the lowest of industrialized economies. significant issues in China.99 Because only a small portion of university businesses are successful—and can pose serious financial liabilities for universities—the government has been encouraging universities to yield management control at enterprises to professionals so they can be run as modern businesses.100, According to Chinese statistics, enterprises are the chief drivers of innovation in China. As one ZTE researcher put it, “We see the amazing innovations by Apple.” Also, most of the core components ZTE’s handsets are imported, such as memory chips, displays, and batteries are from South Korea and Japan. Seventeen new Centers of Excellence for Commercialization and Research have opened since 2008 to promote stronger partnerships between researchers and industry.460 They include the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of Waterloo, the Brain Research Centre at the University of British Columbia, and the National Optics Institute in Quebec City. The plan also declared Singapore must become “a global talent hub, attracting talent here by providing a vibrant environment and an open society that offer opportunities for communities of creative and talented people.”283. The megaprojects include extra large-scale semiconductor manufacturing, next-generation wireless broadband, advanced nuclear reactors, control of AIDS and hepatitis, and large aircraft manufacturing. ZTE also has emerged as the world’s No. New cancer cases in the U.S. are forecast to rise by at least 30 percent by 2020.155 Annual U.S. spending on cancer treatment is expected to rise from $213 billion to $1 trillion a year. 302 DIW Berlin’s definition of research-intensive industries includes automobiles and parts, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machinery, and engines. 104 U.S. company interview in Beijing (June 2011). The Indian Government also now is paying more attention to what it calls “inclusive innovation,” which is defined as “using innovation as a tool to eliminate disparity and meet the needs of the many.”171. In Germany, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung), better known as the BMBF, has a broad portfolio that includes most federal R&D activities and programs to promote commercialization. The Flemish government introduced a program to place young academic researchers into industry and to support Ph. Information and communications technologies (ICT) also are strategically important, not only as promising Chinese growth industries in themselves but also as a means for modernizing the economy. 347 Excellence Initiative data from German Research Council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) Web site at http://www.dfg.de/en/magazine/excellence_initiative/index.html. [See Figure 5.15]. The Flemish Innovation Cooperative Ventures program supports collective research. Nuclear Research, for example, and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. ZIM’s stated goals are to encourage SMEs to dedicate more efforts to innovation, reduce the risks of technology-based projects, and rapidly commercialize research.359 ZIM has different programs to support cooperative research projects between enterprises and research organizations, R&D commercialization projects by individual SMEs, and innovative networks involving at least six companies. construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Also see Patrick Lambe, “The Engineer’s Dilemma: Innovation in Singapore,” Straits Knowledge, 2002 (http://www.greenchameleon.com/thoughtpieces/engineer.pdf). If the current trend of a broad 5 percent increase in costs persists, asset growth by 2030 would no longer mitigate other pressures on profitability, and global profit pools would shrink threefold (Exhibit 2). It really is fascinating how quickly the global business environment develops and changes. 173 World Bank, Unleashing India’s Innovation: Toward Sustainable and Inclusive Growth, Mark A. Dutz, editor, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2007 (http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOUTHASIAEXT/Resources/223546-1181699473021/38767821191373775504/indiainnovationfull.pdf). By continent, 1976-2015 50 figure 19 of dynamic capabilities is of particular relevance to the United States manufacturing! National applied research is an emerging understanding of the U.S. Department of Commerce, global growth of and... 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